Sunday, February 24, 2019
Phoneme Confusion Essay
An understanding of why students often veil the phonemes /b/ and /d/ begins with understanding the fundamental difference between a phoneme and a grapheme. The c in all phoneme refers to a basic sound found within a language, much(prenominal) as the sounds that ar stand for by the earns /b/ and /d/. The grapheme represents the actual symbol used to denote those sounds (Reutzel & Cooter, 2004). In nigh Indo-European languages, the initial sounds of the words ball and dog are represented by these same symbols /b/ and /d/.The occupation that children unremarkably cast off with these sounds lies not in their confusion of the actual sounds or phonemes, but in the similarities between the two graphemes used to represent them (Goldstein, 2007). The problem that children ordinarily take for is in figuring out which sound goes with which letternot very in differentiating the sounds themselves (Macauslan & Quinn, 1976). This can be ascertained because it is often the case that chil dren who suck the mistake of mixing up the two sounds by indicant usually manage to speak without replacing either phoneme with the other (Goldstein, 2007).It is usually the case, therefore, that the problem lies with the visual aspect of the grapheme itself. The letters /b/ and /d/ are both very similarly constructed distributively is made up of a circle with a stick attached. When trying to differentiate between /b/ and /d/, children forget which side the stick should be on. Even in the phonologically aware child, each symbol sometimes succeeds in calling to mental capacity both the sounds associated with the two letters (Goldstein, 2007). However, the child has a problem grant the correct sound to the proper letter not because of an inherent reading problem, but because of an inability to properly orient the form of the letter in order to make the decision (Macauslan & Quinn, 1976).There as several dinner gown and informal methods of dealing with this form of confusion. One method is simply to instruct the letters separately. By teaching the phoneme-grapheme /b/ initially, the student is allowed to become thoroughly familiar with the letter and its governance. This familiarity will also extend itself to the sound or phoneme that is to be associated with it. Once the student can distinguish that this (b) is the letter b (bee), then that child will be less likely to confuse it with the other. Then, one it is established that the child knows /b/ and can distinguish it from all other letters and forms, the phoneme/grapheme /d/ can be introduced. another(prenominal) methods of dealing with this issue exist to deal with a confusion that has already surfaced. Some teachers use mnemonic devices such as the formation of the letter with the hand. By holding the middle finger and the thumb together piece allowing the forefinger to stand straight up, one can approximate the formation of /b/ on the left hand and /d/ on the right. By assigning a name to each fo rmation such as bull to the left and dog to the right, the child might be prompted to take to be which letter goes with each sound by listening to the onset of each word.It whitethorn also be helpful to point out the relation between the lower and upper-case Bs. By prompting the student that the lower-case /b/ is barely a B with the upper semicircle missing, it might serve to remind him/her which letter corresponds with what sound. However, this may not prove generally helpful at the early ages, at which stage children are often likely to rick all letters (including uppercase B) without readily noticing the difference.The child who is phonologically aware may still demonstrate confusion of the phonemes represented by the symbols /b/ and /d/ because of the similarity in the look of the two. These children may be otherwise sooner able to perform the psychological and physical actions necessary to become upright readers. However, such otherwise good readers may persist in puzzli ng the two for quite a few years. The problem is not usually a great one and may be overcome apply several mnemonic devices that serve to reinforce the distinction in the appearance of the two graphemes.ReferencesGoldstein, E. B. (2007). Cognitive psychology connecting mind, research and everyday experience. Belmont, CA Wadsworth Publishing.Macauslan, A. & V. Quinn. (1976). The revolution of confusable letters in the writing of depressed children. Child Care, wellness and Development. 2(6) 379-386.Reutzel, D. R. & R. B. Cooter. (2004). The essentials of teaching children to read what every teacher needs to know. Upper shoot down River Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.