Sunday, March 31, 2019
Critically Contrasting Personnel Management and Human Resource Management
Critically Contrasting military group solicitude and Human alternative precaution1. INTRODUCTIONOver the last fewer decades with the stick out of attack of the industrial revolution, the live on place has seen a change in stance with respect to its slew working in organizations. The key story resonates around the ever increasing importance being give to the employees or the compassionate beingse p keyence. It started with what theorists referred to as staff office perplexity. Some theorists believe that military group focus evolved in to what is now called human option attention eyepatch early(a)s tie remarkable strategical and operational going a way of lifes mingled with them (Torrington et al. 2005). The basic balance that the researchers produce surrounded by these two is their ara of focus inwardly the institution. staff office counseling visualizes primarily into administrative aspects of the organisation patch, Human vision circumspe ction, on the new(prenominal) hand, looks after developing, retaining and growing the human aspect the organisation. In most organisations forthwith we see a growing importance given to this lean at strategic levels.In this essay, the theory that exists for forcefulness department focal point and human resource direction will be diminutively jobed and analysed to come to a result in the debate menti aced in the previous paragraph. A bout of theorists look at all(prenominal) of these as independent elements as well as relational elements and this essay explains the ecesis of the context of each of the elements i.e. personnel department counseling and human resource guidance, the change or the perceived transformation of personnel guidance to human resource management and pictureing rests and similarities found in the existing literature to conclusively define whether there is a difference surrounded by the two or is Human preference centering a status which is purely an evolution of personnel management.2. THEORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF strength MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN vision MANAGEMENTThere has been a portentous amount of literature that has been critical of personnel management of being belittled on organisational status in the recent years. The perception is widely held that the function of personnel management is limited in a reactive and administrative position and fails to hold relevance to the aims of the organisation. To elucidate this perception it should function at a strategic level (Lundy, 1994). Authors such(prenominal) as Drucker (1968), Watson (1977), Legge (1978) and Rowland and Summers (1981) relate personnel management to an administrative role. This could include payroll, maintaining traffic patterns with respect to regulation and other such activities. Torrington and Hall (1987) far-famed that personnel management looks towards the line manager for the as a key driver for the consolidation to the boilersuit organization al goals. heretofore the lack of strategic direction sometimes causes a conflict with the overall role of the manager which is more strategic in genius. Lundy (1994) noted that the establishment of the trade unions in UK along with the subsequent welf atomic number 18 movement that began with the on stria of the industrial revolution in the early 19th century became the be cause of this conflict. Trade unions meant the workers were represented, were informed and could now demand and fight for their rights while line managers and governments considered labour as commodity. This lack of strategic composition in personnel management began to see the emergence of Human preference centering as a replacement term. The pitfalls that were once faced with the administrative scene of the personnel management were being eliminated by extended the boundaries to generate a more strategic role within the organization. Hence, human resource prep became aligned and was getting integrated with the overall organizational strategy.HRM, according to Bratton and gilded (2003), is a strategic approach to managing employment relations which emphasizes that leveraging peoples capabilities is critical in achieving competitive advantage. Torrington et al (2005) describe human resource management as a philosophy that deals with the carrying surface of organisational activities that are people orient and that extends to those who are not employed in the organisation. Human resource management is now, in the English speaking world, the most extensively used term that describes the activities of the management in terms of employment relationship (Boxall and Purcell 2003). A significant number of changes took place around 1994 with relation to trade unions, organisational restructuring. There was as well a modernize in the atypical forms of employment. With respect to these changes Beardwell and Holden (1994) suggest that any(prenominal) assessment of the emergence of Human R esource heed has, at least, to acquire account of this changing context of employment and provide some explanations as to the relationships that exist between the contribution HRM has made to some of these changes on one hand and, on the other hand, the impact that such changes have had on the theory and practice of HRM itself (p. 5).The human resource management can be looked at in the light of five aspects. First, the senior management considers the people problems at a more serious level. The overall delegation of certificate of indebtedness lies with the line manager. Second, team work, communicating, and empowerment within employees is given a full(prenominal) level of importance. Third, employee development through the facilitation of training allows the employee to contribute more well to the organization. Fourth, every employee is considered as an individual. His or her needs are carefully assessed and tenseness is given to them. Lastly, the overall fit is considered t o be around the greater strategic fit of the organization.3. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT VERSUS HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTPersonnel management is unoriginally believed as having little focus over the course links that are broader in nature and it is believed that it concentrates more on the activities of the personnel professionals and also on the operational techniques within the organisation. Thus the function of it is seen as low administrative record keeping and maintenance of people. In contrast to this function, human resource management is considered to concentrate more on the pipeline linkages and also in comparison to personnel management it is usually tagged as an established and good people management practice (Redman and Wilkinson 2006). Legge 1995 (in Beardwell and Claydon 2007 9), lists out three significant points that show that human resource management differs from personnel management. First, HRM is concerned with the province of the top managers for the management o f the culture. Secondly, she states that personnel management appears to be something performed on subordinates by managers rather than something that the latter experience themselves. Finally, she says that human resource management defines the role of the line- managers rather than personnel managers. She further argues that the three differences utter above emphasize on human resource management, in theory, of being more of a central strategic management task as compared to personnel management. Armstrong (2006) states that human resource management lays more emphasis on the strategic fit and integration and its philosophy is management and business oriented. He contrasts Human resource management from personnel management on the can that achievement of commitment and the management of the organisation culture are given more emphasis by HRM than personnel management. point (1992) and guest (1987) each carefully commemorate personnel management and human resource management. T he approaches considered by both also vary. taradiddle (1992) looks at the differences in light of the virtual(a) aspect Guest (1987) draws more on the psychological aspects between the two.Points of difference between Personnel management and HRM as noted by Storey (1992)DimensionPersonal ManagementHRM1. Beliefs and assumptionsContractBehaviour Referent impingeCareful delineation of written contractsNorms/ customs and practice.Institutionalized.Aim to go beyond contract.Values or mission.De emphasized.2. Strategic aspectsKey relationsInitiativesCorporate planSpeed of actionLabour management.Piecemeal.Marginal to.Slow.Customer.Integrated.Central to.Fast.3. var. ManagementManagement roleKey managersCommunication streamerizationTransactional leadership.Personnel specialists. validatory communication.High (e.g. parity an issue).Transformational leadership.General/business/line managers.Direct communication. menial (e.g. parity not seen as relevant).4. Key leversSelectionPay rail li ne designTraining and developmentFoci of attention for interventionsSeparate, marginal task.Job military rank (fixed grades).Division of labour.Controlled access to courses.Personnel procedures.Integrated, key task. accomplishment related.Teamwork.Learning companies. widely ranging cultural, structural and personnel strategies.TABLE Difference between Personnel Management and Human Resource Management. Source Storey, 1992 35In the table above, Storey (1992) lists possible differences that are present between personnel management and human resource management. These differences describe the strategic aspect of personnel management as labour management and of Human resource management as guest management. Conventional personnel management focuses more on rules and norms, customs of the organisation and the practices which have already been established, whereas the human resource management tends to be more inclined towards giving importance to the value and mission that are set for the organisation. The personnel management approach is particular about the establishment of policies and procedures within the organisation and it enforces conformity of employees to these rules through careful delineation of written contracts. In contrast to this aspect of personnel management, Human Resource Management tends to go by the spirit of the contract. The structure of job design followed by personnel management is division of labour i.e. different people are depute to different areas of expertise, where as Human resource management involves teamwork in which a group of people are assigned to accomplish a goal.Points of difference between personnel management (PM) and human resource management (HRM) as noted by Guest (1987)Personnel ManagementHuman Resource ManagementPsychological ContractFair days work for a fair days payReciprocal commitmentLocus of constraintExternal controlInternal controlEmployee relationsPluralist approach corporalLow TrustUnitarist approachIndi vidualHigh trustOrganizing principles mechanicForma/defined rolesTop go across strategyCentralizedOrganic limber rolesBottom up strategyDe-centralizedPolicy GoalsAdministrative efficiencyStandard performanceCost minimizationAdaptive work forcePerformance improvementMaximum utilizationTable Difference between personnel management and human resource management. Source Guest, 1987In the above table, Guest (1987) examines the main differences between personnel management and human resource management. handle Storey, Guest also analysis a number of segments of the organisation to draw the main differences between the two debated terms. The psychological contract, which is the mutual agreement reached between the employee and employer, was the first element of difference. While personnel management considered it as necessary from both parties to remunerate according to work and vice-a-verse. The control in consequence of personnel management was an external entity while the human reso urce management stemmed from within. Another key eventor was trust. Guest believes that the personnel management failed to generate employee trust which in the case of human resource management was the key. The mechanical approach of personnel management meant a formal, top d profess and centralized approach to managing employees. Human resource management on the other hand is considered to be more flexible originating from employees and de-centralized. The overall aim of personnel management, according to Guest, looked at drawing the most bang from the buck while minimizing the cost. However the goals for human resource management have taken on a role of improving performance by adapting the workforce to increase the output.Painting the overall scenario, the differences cited by Guest (1987) and Storey (1992) reflect the fact that there lie differences between personnel management and human resource management on both practical as well as psychological fronts. The overall differ ence in its application has been considered to draw a clearer understanding of the differences cited above. However, literature also considers a number of key similarities which underlie both aspects of employee management.4. SIMILARITIESStrategies of both Personnel Management and Human resource management flow from the business strategy. Both have the view that managing people is the responsibility of the line managers. Soft HRM and Personnel management have identical determine with regard to the respect of the individual, develop people to achieve and facilitate their own satisfaction and the organisational objectives to the maximum level (Armstrong, 2006). Poole (1999) notes that despite the differences stated there are a number of factors that provide for a number of clear similarities between human resource management and personnel management.Emphasis on integration Poole (1999) notes that both these models emphasize on their integration with the overall organizational goals.L ine management as the driver He notes that once again human resource management and personnel management look to the line management to deploy the human resource practices and policies.Individual development Poole (1999) considers the model of Personnel Management and contrasts it with the models of Human resource management and concludes that both state the entailment of developing the individual employee to the level of his highest abilities within the organization. Also while considering work in this field he found similarities in context lay down regarding the dependent nature of the employees.Importance of selection and job storage allocation Poole finds that the correct allocation of jobs to the appropriate people is an important factor in the integration with the organization. It is worth noting that the integration with the organization was the basic similarity between human resource management and personnel management.5. RHETORIC OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTKeenoy and An thony (1992 235) consider the relation between the employment relationship and human resource management as rhetoric and metaphors. HRM its self is shown in a positive light when words such as nurturing and organic are brought into the picture. However, other terms which described personnel management were reactive, monitoring and bureaucratic provided a negative connotation. In relation to the dominant emergence of HRM, Legge (1995) arguedThe importance of HRM, and its apparent overshadowing of personnel management, lies just as much (and possibly more so) in its function as a rhetoric about how employees should be managed to achieve competitive advantage than a coherent new practice (p. xiv)Legge (in Storey 1995) further notes that there has been hype due to the existence, assumptions and epistemology of overstuffed and profound models of HRM. This according to Bach and Sisson (2000) can be done to achieve a state of control over the workforce. The hard model of HRM deals with t he employees in a less humanistic approach by referring to the more quantitative nature of reducing costs, managing head count and the overall need of the hour. While the soft model of HRM deals with the development of the employees and an overall well being of the employee. Bach and Sisson (2000) noted that the soft HRM camouflages the negative aspects of the hard HRM to paint a positive picture. In practice, both the elements of hard and soft HRM exist together and impacts the employee directly. Critiques of HRM such as Keenoy find that ambiguity in the term Human Resource Management is a remarkable feature in itself. (Beardwell and Claydon 2007)6. CONCLUSIONHuman Resource Management has become the most widely used term which refer to the activities of the management of the organization towards its employees. There are a number of debates meet the meaning, definition and scope of HRM and personnel management. Some critics find a number of similarities between the two while others find significant contrasts between the two. Legge (1995) sets forward the view that there is no major difference between the principles and values of the two but Storey (1992) found a number of aspects that differentiate the two.To summarise, personnel management is widely observed as having an operational stately to people management with the aim at achieving efficiency within the norms of providing arbitrator to the employees work. From the literature, conclusions can be drawn that the difficulty faced by personnel management in obtaining credibility in the eyes of the employees paved the way for the rise of Human Resource Management. The concern about the difference between personnel management and the extent to which HRM represented a positive or negative phase in peoples management gave rise to the debate relating to the differences and similarities of HRM and conventional Personnel Management.In summary, it can be noted from the literature that the necessary evolution of p ersonnel management was fuelled by the lack of trust with employees and gave rise to the emergence of Human Resource Management. The hard and soft models of Human Resource Management lay evidence to this evolution by displaying characteristics of the more mechanistic aspects of personnel management.