Thursday, April 11, 2019

Phonetics Case Essay Example for Free

Ph unrivalledtics Case EssayIntroductionThe aim of this thesis is to defecate a systematic description of whatsoever(prenominal) aspects of English morphoph sensationmic. The thesis f everys into 2 chaptersThe jump chapter, which is an introduction, presents a short sketch of the title, the problem, the heading of the national,phonological draw reins. The second chapter is devoted to rough of the basic impressions required in the study of morphophonemic. It starts with various definitions of morpheme, allomorph.The thesis ends with some conclusions, a list of bibliography. Morphophonemic Analysis designates the analytic procedures whereby paradigms with phonological alter democracys argon reduced to cardinal representations and phonological rules. The term morphophonemic analytic thinking has a now overcloud origin. In the 1940s and 1950s, many phonologists scan a shited with a conjecture in which (roughly) all neutralizing rules were assumed to apply before all allophonic rules. This in effect divided the phonology into two components a neutralizing component, whose units were called morphophonemes, and a non-neutralizing component, which dealt with phonemes and allophones. This bifurcated-phonology theory is widely considered unt alter today, preciselymorphophonemics remains a useful term for characterizing the study of neutralizing phonological rules as they apply in paradigms.When we conduct morphophonemic digest, we experiencek to set a connection between selective in look intoation and theory. The theory in question is that morphemes atomic number 18 stored in the lexicon in an invariant phonemic work on, argon set up together by morphological and syntactic rules, and atomic number 18 wherefore converted to their surface relieve oneselfs by a sequence of phonological rules ( often neutralizing), applied in a particular order. The purpose of morphophonemic analysis is to account a set of underlying forms and ordered rules that are consistent with the selective learning and the payoff is that seemingly intricate patterns are often reduced to simplicity.Morphophonemic analysis may be contrasted with phonemic analysis. Phonemic analysis is a more limited form of phonological analysis that seeks and to discover the non-neutralizing (allophonic) rules of the phonology. In phonemic analysis, totally the distribution and similarity of the phones is examined. in that respectfore, the data need non be grouped in paradigms, but need only comprise a sufficiently large and representative set of voice communication. Like phonemic analysis, morphophonemic analysis evoke be pursued with a systematic method.The main purpose of my work consists in do exact definition of a phoneme and allophone and be able to distinguish them. To understand what is morphophonemic? Problems of my work are morphophonemic and morphophonological rules, types of morphophonological changes, relation between phonology and morpho phonology, closing off forms, rule ordering, morphophonology and orthography.Morphophonology (also morphophonemics, morphonology) is a disunite of linguistics which studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes. Its chief focus is the healthful changes that take govern in morphemes (minimal meaningful units) when they combine to form actors line. Morphophonological analysis often involves an attempt to give a serial publication of formal rules that successfully predict the regular sound changes occurring in the morphemes of a accustomed speech communication. Such a series of rulesconverts a theoretical underlying representation into a surface form that is actually heard. The units of which the underlying representations of morphemes are composed are sometimes called morphophonemes. The surface form produced by the morphophonological rules may consist of phonemes (which are consequently subject to ordinary phonological rules to produce sp eech sounds or phones), or else the morphophonological analysis may bypass the phoneme stage and produce the phones itself. Morphophonemes and morphophonological rulesWhen morphemes combine, they influence individually other(a)s sound social structure (whether study at a phonetic or phonemic level), resulting in different variant pronunciations for the same morpheme. Morphophonology attempts to analyze these processes. A lectures morphophonological structure is chiefly set forth with a series of rules which, ideally, can predict every morphophonological alternation that takes place in the phrase. An example of a morphophonological alternation in English is provided by the plural morpheme, written as -s or -es. Its pronunciation alternates between s, z, and z, as in cats, dogs, and horses respectively. A purely phonological analysis would almost liable(predicate) assign to these three endings the phonemic representations /s/, /z/, /z/.On a morphophonological level, never theless, they may all be considered to be forms of the underlying object //z//, which is a morphophoneme. The different forms it takes are dependent on the segment at the end of the morpheme to which it attaches these dependencies are described by morphophonological rules. (The behaviour of the English gone reach ending -ed is similar it can be pronounced t, d or d, as in hoped, bobbed and added.) Note that the plural suffix -s can also influence the form taken by the preceding morpheme, as in the case of the words leaf and knife, which end with f in the singular, but have v in the plural (leaves, knives).On a morphophonological level these morphemes may be analyzed as ending in a morphophoneme //F//, which becomes voiced when a voiced conformable (in this case the //z// of the plural ending) is attached to it. This rule may be written imageically as /F/ - voice / __ voice. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, pipes ( ) are often used to indicate a morphophonemic sort of t han phonemic representation. Another habitual convention is persona slashes (// //), asabove, implying that the transcription is more phonemic than simply phonemic. Other conventions sometimes seen are double pipes ( ) and frizzy brackets ( ). Types of morphophonological changesInflected and agglutinating languages may have passing complicated systems of morphophonemics. Examples of complex morphophonological systems hold 1. Sandhi, the phenomenon behind the English examples of plural and past puree above, is found in virtually all languages to some degree. Even Mandarin, which is sometimes express to display no morphology, nonetheless displays tone sandhi, a morphophonemic alternation. 2. Consonant gradation, found in some Uralic languages much(prenominal) as Finnish, Estonian, Northern Smi, and Nganasan. 3. Vowel harmony, which occurs in varying degrees in languages all slightly the world, notably Turkic languages. 3. Ablaut, found in English and other Germanic languages. Ablaut is the phenomenon wherein stem vowels change form depending on context, as in English sing, sang, sung. Relation between phonology and morphophonologyUntil the 1950s, many phonologists assumed that neutralizing rules generally applied before allophonic rules. Thus phonological analysis was split into two parts a morphophonological part, where neutralizing rules were extended to derive phonemes from morphophonemes and a purely phonological part, where phones were derived from the phonemes. Since the 1960s (in particular with the work of the generative school, such as Chomsky and Halles The Sound Pattern of English) many linguists have moved away from making such a split, instead regarding the surface phones as being derived from the underlying morphophonemes (which may be referred to victimization various terminology) done a single system of (morpho)phonological rules.The purpose of both phonemic and morphophonemic analysis is to produce simpler underlying descriptions for what appear on the surface to be complicated patterns. In purely phonemic analysis the data is just a set of words in a language, age for the purposes of morphophonemic analysis the words must be considered in grammatical paradigms to take account of the underlying morphemes. It is postulated that morphemes are recorded in the speakers lexicon in an invariant (morphophonemic) form, which, in a given environment, is converted by rules into a surface form. The analyst attemptsto present as completely as possible a system of underlying units (morphophonemes) and a series of rules that act on them, so as to produce surface forms consistent with the linguistic data.Isolation formsThe closing off form of a morpheme is the form in which that morpheme appears in isolation (when not subject to the effects of any other morpheme). In the case of a bound morpheme, such as the English past tense ending -ed, it pull up stakes generally not be possible to identify an isolation form, since such a morpheme does not occur in isolation. It is often reasonable to assume that the isolation form of a morpheme provides its underlying representation. For example, in some American English, plant is pronounced plnt, while planting is pln, where the morpheme plant- appears in the form pln. Here the underlying form can be assumed to be //plnt//, corresponding to the isolation form, since rules can be set up to derive the reduced form pln from this (while it would be difficult or unimaginable to set up rules that would derive the isolation form plnt from an underlying //pln//).This is not alship canal the case, however sometimes the isolation form itself is subject to neutralization that does not apply to some other instances of the morpheme. For example, the cut word petit (small) is pronounced in isolation without the final t sound, although in certain derived forms (such as the feminine petite) the t is heard. If the isolation form were adopted as the underlying form, the informat ion that there is a final t would be lost, and it would be hard to explain the appearance of the t in the inflected forms.Rule orderingMorphophonological rules are generally considered to apply in a set order. This means that the practical application of one rule may sometimes either prevent or enable the application of another rule provided the rules are appropriately ordered. If the ordering of two rules is such that the application of the first rule can have the effect of making it possible to apply the second, and so the rules are said to be in provide order. For example, if a language has an apocope rule (A) which deletes a final vowel, and a cluster reduction rule (CR) that reduces a final consonant cluster, thus the rules are in feeding order if A precedes CR, since the application of A can enable application of CR (for example, a word ending /-rpa/ is not itself subjectto CR, since the consonant cluster is not final, but if A is applied to it first, leaving /-rp/, then CR can apply). Here rule A is said to feed rule CR. If the rules are ordered such as to avoid possible feeding (in this case, if CR applies before A) then they are said to be in counter-feeding order. On the other hand, if rules are ordered such that the application of the first rule can have the effect of preventing application of the second, then the rules are said to be in bleeding order.For example, if a language has an epenthesis rule (E) that inserts a /w/ before certain vowels, and a vowel deletion rule (D) that deletes one of two consecutive vowels, then the rules are in bleeding order if E precedes D, since the application of E can prevent application of D (for example, a word containing /-iu-/ would be subject to D, but if E is applied to it first, leaving /-iwu-/, then D can no tenaciouser apply). Here rule E is said to bleed rule D. If the rules are ordered such as to avoid possible bleeding (in this case, if D applies before E) then they are said to be in counter-bleed ing order. The terminology of feeding and bleeding is also applied to other linguistic rules, such as those of historical sound changes.Morphophonology and orthographyThe principle behind alphabetic typography systems is that the letters (graphemes) represent phonemes. However in many orthographies based on such systems the correspondences between graphemes and phonemes are not exact, and it is sometimes the case that certain spellings better represent a words morphophonological structure rather than the purely phonological. An example of this is that the English plural morpheme is written -s regardless of whether it is pronounced as /s/ or /z/ we write cats and dogs, not dogz. The above example involves active morphology (inflection), and morphophonemic spellings are common in this context in many languages. Another type of spelling that can be described as morphophonemic is the kind that reflects the etymology of words. Such spellings are particularly common in English examples i nclude science /sa/ vs. unconscious //, prejudice /pr/ vs. prequel /pri/, sign /san/ signature /sn/, nation /ne/ vs. nationalism /n/, and special /sp/ vs. species /spi/.Conclusions according to this chapterMorphophonology (also morphophonemics, morphonology) is a branch of linguistics which studies 1. The phonological structure of morphemes.2. The combinatory phonic modifications of morphemes which happen when they are combined. 3. The alternative series which serve a morphological function. Examples of a morphophonological alternatives in English include these distinctions Plurals -es and -s, as in bus, buses, vs. bun, buns. Plural of -f is -ves, as in leaf, leaves.Different pronunciations for the past tense marker -ed.English, having lost its inflection, does not have much morphophonology. Inflected and agglutinating languages may have extremely complicated systems, e.g., consonant gradation. A morphophonemic rule has the form of a phonological rule, but is circumscribe to a part icular morphological environment. Morphophonemic rules are sensitive to their environment, unlike phonological rules. Whenever morphological information is required to specify the environment for an allophonic rule, the rule is morphophonemic. The prefix /in-/ has the allomorphs il and ir/in-/ + responsible irresponsible/in-/ + logical befuddledTherefore, there must be a morphophonemic rule which determines the allomorphs il and ir of the prefix /in-/. The purpose of both phonemic and morphophonemic analysis is to produce simpler underlying descriptions for what appear on the surface to be complicated patterns. When morphemes are clustered or grouped in words than changes in the phonological structures of these words occur. Such changes are called morphophonemic changes. Assuming that we allow phonological rules to apply in sequence, we can cycle through them using the output of the first rule as the input to the second. For many cases in the data set, at most one phonological rule introduces a structural change. But in cog, tail, or comb we see a single derivation that involves both rules. Furthermore, such cases are not rare in English. all word that begins with a laborious stop and contains a vowel that precedes a voiced consonant will require the application of both rules. We use cog as an illustrative exampleAllophoneCentral to the concept of the phoneme is the idea that it may be pronounced in many different ways. In English (BBC pronunciation) we take it for granted that the r sounds in ray and tray are the same sound (i.e. the same phoneme), but in reality the two sounds are very different the r in ray is voiced and non-fricative, while the r sound in tray is voiceless and fricative. In phonemic transcription we use the same symbol r for both, but we know that the allophones of r include the voiced nonfricative sound and the voiceless fricative one . In theory a phoneme can have an infinite number of allophones, but in act for descriptive purpose s we tend to concentrate on a small number that occur most regularly.PhonemeThis is the extreme unit of phonology, which has been defined and used in many different ways. Virtually all theories of phonology hold that spoken language can be broken down into a string of sound units (phonemes), and that each language has a small, relatively fixed set of these phonemes. Most phonemes can be put into groups for example, in English we can identify a group of plosive phonemes p, t, k, b, d a group of voiceless fricatives f, , s, , h, and so on. An important question in phoneme theory is how the analyst can establish what the phonemes of a language are. The most widely accepted view is that phonemes are contrastive and one must find cases where the engagement between two words is dependent on the difference between two phonemes for example, we can rotate that the difference between pin and pan depends on the vowel and that i and are different phonemes.Pairs of words that differ in just o ne phoneme are known as minimal pairs. We can establish the same fact about p and b by citing pin and bin. Of course, you can only start doing commutation tests like this when you have a provisional list of possible phonemes to test, so some basic phonetic analysis must precede this stage. Other fundamental concepts used in phonemic analysis of this sort are complementary distribution, free variation, distinctive feature and allophone. Different analyses of a language are possible in the case of English some phonologists claim that there are only six vowel phonemes, others that there are twenty or more (it depends on whether you count diphthongs and long vowels as single phonemes or as combinations of two phonemes). It used to be said that learning thepronunciation of a language depended on learning the individual phonemes of the language, but this building-block view of pronunciation is looked on immediately as an unhelpful oversimplification.PhonemicsWhen the importance of the ph oneme became widely accepted, in the 1930s and 40s, many attempts were made to develop scientific ways of establishing the phonemes of a language and listing each phonemes allophones this was known as phonemics. now little importance is given to this type of analysis, and it is considered a minor branch of phonology, except for the practical purpose of devising writing systems for previously unwritten languages.ConclusionAn allophone is a phonetic variant of a phoneme in a particular language.A phoneme is the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language.A phone is one of many possible sounds in the languages of the world.Phonemics a branch of linguistic analysis involving the study of phonemes, the structure of a language in terms of phonemes.General conclusionMorphophonemics, in linguistics, study of the relationship between morphology and phonology. Morphophonemics involves an investigation of the phonological variations within morphemes, usually marking different grammatical functions e.g., the vowel changes in sleep and slept, bind and bound, vain and vanity, and the consonant alternations in knife and knives, loaf and loaves.The ways in which the morphemes of a language are variously represented by phonemic shapes can be regarded as a kind of code. This code is the morphophonemic system of the language. The morphophonemics of English is never so simple. There are always many instances of two or more morphemes represented by the same phonemic shape, and there are always cases in which a single morpheme is represented now by one phonemic shape, now by another. Therefore the morphophonemics of English is never trivial.Literature1. Hayes, Bruce (2009). Morphophonemic Analysis anterior Phonology,pp. 161185. Blackwell. 2. R. Jakobson, C. G. Fant, and M. Halle, Preliminaries to Speech Analysis, Fundamentals of Language (Mouton and Company, The Hague, 1956). 3. P. Roach (2004). English Phonetics and Phonology, Cambridge. 4. www.wikipedia.ru5. www .sil.org6.

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